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Workforce Intelligence terms

Updated on December 23, 2020

Understanding the following terms, used throughout the Pega Workforce Intelligence documentation and the system, helps you get the most out of using the system.

Administration tab

The Administration tab in Workforce Intelligence is where you map applications, map screens and webpages, maintain Off-Computer Reason Codes, specify opportunity settings, and manage Pega Workforce Intelligence users.

Analysis tab

The Analysis tab in Workforce Intelligence is where you identify opportunities and see how much time has been spent in each application screen or on each webpage.

application administration

The process of identifying applications and web domains, mapping them to a user-friendly application name and a work category to support analysis, and turning on or off the tracking of screens.


A computer program (or set of computer programs) designed to enable a user to perform a group of functions and tasks, such as Microsoft Word or Outlook. These programs can be identified by the name of their executable file or by the web domain.


Office workers or employees whose job functions are primarily performed on the desktop and whose activities are reported on and summarized by Pega Workforce Intelligence. Associates must have Pega Robot Runtime installed on their computers. Pega Robot Runtime collects the information that Pega Workforce Intelligence presents. Associates are also called data collectors.

bounded workflow

Bounded workflows start on a specific application or screen and end on a specific application or screen. These workflows are based on Production and Other work apps. Your system administrator defines those applications and screens, and assigns the workflow tags that represents this workflow.


An indicator of which area of the hierarchy is being shown on the screen. You can click on a breadcrumb to jump to a previous level of the hierarchy.

complexity score

A numeric value that indicates the variability that is required to complete a workflow, including total applications and screens, unique applications and screens, and number of steps in a workflow. Higher scores indicate lower levels of complexity.


A single webpage that shows the current status and ongoing trends of your organization’s behavior. This helps you to make informed decisions and can guide you to specific investigations or outcomes.

data collectors

Office workers or employees whose job functions are primarily performed on the desktop and whose activities are reported on and summarized by Pega Workforce Intelligence. Data collectors must have Pega Robot Runtime installed on their computers. Pega Robot Runtime collects the information that Pega Workforce Intelligence presents. Data collectors are also called associates.

drill down

Click a drill down icon to move through the hierarchical view of data, moving from more general to more specific, to find the data that is relevant to the areas you are supervising. For example, you can drill down on the Summary and Analysis pages.

efficiency score

A numeric value that indicates the amount of waste in a workflow. This score compares production and other work time to total time. Higher scores indicate lower levels of waste.

employee focus

How an employee allocates his or her time and actions during the day. This usually falls into one of the following categories: Production Work, Other Work, Non Work, Idle, and Unknown.


A computer file that contains a program/application that can be run.

expected employee hours

An associate’s hours for a specific workday. This information is used to complete the picture of associate focus for an associate's day.

friction score

A numeric value that indicates how much interaction is required to complete a step or workflow. This score is based on the steps, key presses, clicks, and scrolls in a workflow. Lower scores indicate higher levels of friction.


A definable structure that you can use to organize your workforce into logical groupings and reflect who reports to whom. Pega Workforce Intelligence uses the hierarchy that you define for reporting and analysis purposes. You can label the levels in the hierarchy to match the company's business structure, such as divisions, departments, supervisors, managers, associates and so on.


An extended period of time during which the associate does not interact with the keyboard or mouse.

idle time

The amount of time that is spent idle, with no input from the associate, shown as both an amount and a percentage of total time.


Insights alert you to ways in which you can improve workflows and paths by highlighting certain events that occur in workflows or paths or both. For example, an insight might note that there is excess waste in several workflows and recommend that you review the Waste tab to determine ways to lower the amount of waste.

missing hours

The difference between the hours an associate or team was expected to work and the actual hours captured by Pega Workforce Intelligence. For instance, if an associate was expected to work 40 hours and only 36 hours were captured, that associate would have four missing hours.

Non Work

A defined category of associate focus that indicates time spent in non-work-related applications and websites. For example, this could indicate that the associate was on Facebook, Pinterest, or some other social media site. Your Pega Workforce Intelligence administrator defines which applications and websites are deemed Non Work.

Off Computer Reason Codes

When an associate is away from the desktop, creating idle time on computer, this code defines what the associate was doing during this period of idle time.

Opportunity Finder

The Opportunity Finder identifies and presents areas of opportunity, where you can potentially increase the efficiency of your organization. For example, this tool on the Analysis tab can show times where the Expected Production Goal was not met or where too much time was spent using non production applications, such as an instant messenger application.

opportunity tags

A label that indicates the following default types of opportunities:

CentralIndicates applications or screens visited after exiting a central application.
ErrorIndicates the receipt of error messages which you should investigate.
IMIndicates excessive use of instant messaging applications.
Knowledge_BaseIndicates the excessive use of the knowledge base.
LegacyIndicates how much time is spent in applications that you are replacing or considering replacing.
LogonIndicates an opportunity to implement Assisted Sign On.
NoiseIndicates applications, screens, or webpages that the system omits from sequence and set-based opportunities, like Central.
NotesIndicates an opportunity to implement automatically-generated notes.
Note: The Virtual_Desktop tag does not indicate an opportunity, but it is listed with the opportunity tags on the Application Administration tab. Use this tag to tell the system that an application is a virtual machine, so that the system will count it correctly. For more information, see Types of Opportunities.

Other Work

A defined category of associate focus that indicates work performed outside of production applications or websites. For example, this could indicate the associate was preparing a training class or documenting procedures for new associates. Your Pega Workforce Intelligence administrator defines which applications and websites are deemed Other Work.

overall score

Provides the overall health of the workflow, based on the efficiency, complexity, and friction scores of all paths in the workflow along with other criteria. This score is a weighted average that helps you determine which workflows might require more analysis.


Paths allow an analyst to compare process steps between variations of the same workflow and see what differences have affected any KPIs that the analyst is monitoring.

Pega Workforce Intelligence

Pega Workforce Intelligence is a cloud-based analytics solution designed to improve the understanding of and productivity of a workforce.

Pega Workforce Intelligence administrator

A person who has been set up to administer the Pega Workforce Intelligence application. You must be assigned the Administrator role to view all the options on the Administration tab.

Pega Workforce Intelligence analyst

A Pega Workforce Intelligence analyst has access to the Dashboard, Summary, Timeline, and Analysis tabs, and is typically focused on improving processes. The information on these pages is helpful when trying to automate tasks. You must be assigned the Analyst User role to view the Analysis tab.

Pega Workforce Intelligence report user

A person who has access to the Dashboard, Summary, and Timeline tabs in Pega Workforce Intelligence, but not the Analysis tab. Report users can also view Administration > Shift Updates.

production %

The percentage of time spent in production applications and websites during the expected hours or shift.

production hours

The time spent during a shift in production applications.

Production Work category

A defined category of associate focus that indicates work to complete a production item. This associate focus can be used for application and Off-Computer time reason code mapping.

Production Work time

The amount of time that is spent in applications or away from the computer that is categorized as Production Work, shown as both an amount and a percentage of total time.


Within Pega Workforce Intelligence there are several user roles such as administrator, analyst, and report user. You assign roles to users using the Administration tab.

Runtime user

A named Pega Robot Runtime user whose desktop usage is being actively captured.

Screen Analysis page

This page shows how much time was spent in each application screen or on each webpage. The information presented on this page can help you determine which processes to automate to improve the overall efficiency of your organization, and is typically used by business or data analysts.

Summary page

A webpage within Pega Workforce Intelligence that shows people responsible for any level of the hierarchy the high level view of utilization and application usage. Users responsible for multiple levels in the organization can drill up or down through the various levels of the hierarchy.

task workflow

Your organization sends start and end times that create task workflows to track specific activities. Workforce Intelligence then matches the timestamps for those tasks with the data that it collects from associate desktops to analyze what occurred during that task.


One or more associates who work semi-autonomously on recurring tasks or towards a common goal. In a Pega Workforce Intelligence hierarchy, departments are comprised of teams.

Timeline page

A webpage within Pega Workforce Intelligence that provides a supervisor with a daily view of the details and patterns of their associates' utilization and application usage. You can use this page to compare behavior and drive improvements.


A trend compares desktop usage for a specified part of the hierarchy over a defined time period, such as this week to last week. The trend is usually calculated by comparing percentages.

Unknown Time category

The default work category for all applications and websites that is used until they are mapped to a more specific work category.

unknown time

The amount of time spent in applications or off of the computer which is not categorized as Production Work, Other Work, or Non Work, shown as both an amount and a percentage of total time.


The measurement of how much of an associate’s time is spent in a specific time category, such as Production Work — work that contributes directly to the main business of the team or department.

wait time

The period of time that a user waits for an application to become usable or a browser to load a website or web application.

  • For applications, wait time occurs any time the application hangs or becomes unresponsive to the user.
  • For browsers, wait time reflects the time it takes for website or application to load. Pega Robot Runtime determines the wait time based on the state of the Refresh/Stop button in the navigation bar. For instance, wait time reflects the amount of time between when the Refresh button changes to Stop and when it returns from Stop to Refresh.

    Pega Robot Runtime captures this wait time data and transfers it to Pega Workforce Intelligence for analysis and presentation.

Note: For browsers, Workforce Intelligence only tracks wait time for Microsoft Internet Explorer version 10 or later.


Time spent in the Non Work, Unknown, Wait Time, and Idle categories.

web domain

The portion of a website’s URL that allows for application identification for many business applications.


A defined process or group of steps that associates perform in the course of their daily work. Analysts and managers review workflow information in Workforce Intelligence to discover opportunities to reduce waste and improve efficiency in the work patterns of associates. A workflow can be as few as two steps.

Workflow dashboard

A dashboard in Workforce Intelligence that includes scores, insights, and a chart of the workflows. You can interact with data on the dashboard to access more detailed information, select metrics to update the workflow chart, or open a table summary with the workflows filtered by a specific insight, for example.

Work Focus categories

Desktop usage and captured off-computer time can be classified into different work focus categories to understand how much time is spent in different types of work. The following is a list of the work categories:

  • Production
  • Other Work
  • Non Work
  • Idle
  • Unknown
  • Waste


Pega Workforce Intelligence System/Cloud Ops Administrator

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